Please ensure that your article has been prepared in accordance with the step-by-step guidelines for submitting a manuscript to our online submission system before submitting. We recommend that you save this page for future reference as you proceed through the submission process. Please ignore these instructions if you are submitting a revised manuscript, responding to a technical check inquiry, or have already submitted this paper to our journal.
Manuscript Format : Your manuscript should be in either Microsoft Word or LaTeX format. It should be written in clear, comprehensible English. If you are concerned about the level of English in your submission, please have it checked by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service before submitting it.
Cover Letter : A cover letter should be included as a separate file with all submissions. Cover letter should provide a brief description of what was previously known, the conceptual development with the findings, and the significance of the findings to a broad readership. The cover letter is confidential and will only be viewed by the editors. Reviewers will not be able to see it.
Title : For a broad audience, the title should reflect the intellectual relevance. The title should be no more than 50 words long and should provide readers with an overview of the relevance of the article. Titles should exclude unusual jargons, abbreviations, and punctuation. A running title, which conveys the sense of the full title (not to exceed 10 words) may be used. Indicate on the top “Research Paper” or “Review Article” as appropriate.
List of Authors : Authors' names must be spelt explicitly rather than placed in initials, with affiliations footnoted. Department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country should all be included in affiliations. The email address of the corresponding authors must be included for communication. Please keep in mind that before submitting the manuscript, all authors must read and approve the final version.
Abstract : The abstract should concisely present the background of the topic, purpose of the study, research rationale, general methods, results, and conclusions. The abstract should not exceed 300 words. The abstract must be a single paragraph. The abstract's purpose is to provide enough information for a reader to determine whether or not to read the entire text of the article. Please provide 8 to 10 keywords of the research paper, please avoid repeating terms from the title. Abbreviations: Provide a list of abbreviations used in the manuscript.
Section Headings : Please use boldface to number the section headings (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). Similarly, use boldface to highlight subheadings, but please differentiate them from primary headers using numbers (e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.). Further subheading subsections should be separated by the numerals 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, and so on.
Introduction : The introduction should include background information that provides a broad readership with an overall perspective on the topic and the study conducted. It addresses an issue and emphasizes its relevance in relation to the study's significance. The introduction might be concluded with a quick explanation of the work's goal and a comment on whether or not that goal was met. The Introduction part should not be more than 1000 words long.
Materials and Methods : The overall experimental design and techniques utilized are described in this section. The goal is to provide enough information for other researchers to completely reproduce your findings. It is also necessary to assist a better comprehension of the produced results. To repeat the experiments, detailed protocols and procedures for new approaches must be given. They must be accompanied by appropriate references, including a credit to the original source. The methods section should be organized under major headings. There is no word limitation for Methods section.
Results : This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed. The Results section should describe the experimental data and their statistical significance as appropriate. Use paragraphs with headings stating the main findings. Results should be illustrated in figures or tables. Use units consistently throughout the manuscript. Sufficient data should be presented to allow for judgment of the variability and reliability of the results. Statistical probability (p) in tables, figures, and figure legends should be expressed as *p<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p< 0.001. For second comparisons, one, two, or three daggers may be used. For multiple comparisons within a table, footnotes italicized in lower case, superscript letters are used and defined in the table legend. There is no word limitation for the Results section, but a succinct description would look better for reading.
Discussion & Conclusion : This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section. Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract. The main findings must be integrated with the current literature with a positive and negative confirmation or new findings with suitable literature references to support the new contentions or findings. The Discussion section should not exceed 2000 words.
Conflict of Interest and Funding : This section should include a declaration of any conflict of interest. It should also acknowledge funding sources if any.
Acknowledgements : The Acknowledgments section should be placed at the end of the text. Personal, technical or reagent help and assistance is noted here. Grants or financial support is acknowledged in this section.
In-text Citations : References must be listed at the end of the manuscript and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in superscript square brackets. References should be cited in the text by giving the first author's name (or the first and second if they are the only authors) and the year of publication (e.g., Reddy and Kulkarni, 1998; Carver, 2006; or Kennedy et al., 2010). In the reference list, the references should be arranged alphabetically by author name. If reference is made to more than one publication by the same author(s) in the same year, suffixes (a, b, c, etc.) should be added to the year in the text citation and in the references list (e.g., Rao et al., 2010a; 2010b). The total number of references should not exceed 100 references (Review articles may contain up to 300 references).
Text : The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50000 characters (inclusive of spaces) or approximately 7000 words.
Figures : All figures should be included in the paper, which should be submitted as a single file to the OJS system. Photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts, and schematic diagrams are examples of figures. Figures submitted should be free from unnecessary decorative effects (e.g., 3D graphs) and lightly manipulated (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be placed on a white backdrop. Please remember to identify all figures include captions (below the picture) as required. These captions should be boldfaced and numbered (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) All figures must have a caption that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend defined as description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. A, B, C, etc.) The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch for RBG coloured, 600 dots per inch for greyscale and 1200 dots per inch for line art. Although there are no file size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system if necessary. The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and un-processed data and metadata files should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.
Tables, Lists and Equations : Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted together with the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. For listing things within the main body of the manuscript, please use roman numbers in parenthesis (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.).
References : This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section. For references in reference list, all authors must be stated. Authors referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g. 1. 2. 3. etc.) and sequenced according to the order it appears as an in-text citation. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s), title of publication, full journal name in italics followed by year of publication, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors to italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning: “and others”). If the DOI is available, please include it after the page range. The upper limitation of Reference total amount is 100, or author will be asked to revise and resubmit the manuscipt.
Reference formatting : Cite This For Me is one of the most popular citation tools today. Launched in October 2010. For more information and to create perfect citations in a fraction of time, please visit https://www.citethisforme.com/
NOTE: Color figures will be published in the online version only. The print version is set for gray scale (B&W format) printing.