ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai <p><strong>Online ISSN :</strong> 2583-3707<br /><strong>Language :</strong> English<br /><strong>Discipline :</strong> Interdiciplinary<br /><strong>Frequency :</strong> Quarterly<br /><strong>Start Year :</strong> 2021</p> <p><strong>About the Journal: </strong>The ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology is an online and print technical journal in automotive and its related fields. It is a publication from <a href="https://www.araiindia.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARAI</a> in collaboration with <a href="https://bspublications.net/main.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BSP Books Pvt. Ltd.</a>, Hyderabad. Its aim is to explore the knowledge of automotive professionals and to meet the needs of both academia and industry in terms of research and development. This journal will endeavour to promote research, innovation, and new ideas in various fields of automotive technology. It is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. <a title="Read more &gt;" href="https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Read more &gt; </strong></a></p> Mr. Nitin B. Dhande en-US ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2583-3707 Editorial https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/278 <p>In the rapidly evolving landscape of mobility technology, the ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology takes pride in presenting its Oct–Dec 2023 issue—a testament to the relentless pursuit of innovation and excellence within the automotive realm.</p> <p>The world is at a pivotal juncture, demanding sustainable solutions to mitigate the environmental impact of transportation. This journal delves into ground-breaking advancements in electric and hybrid vehicles, shedding light on technological strides that promise to reshape the future of mobility. As we stand on the brink of a cleaner, greener era, the ARAI Journal is your guide to understanding and embracing sustainable mobility.</p> <p>Autonomous vehicles have transitioned from fiction to reality, and this journal explores the latest breakthroughs in autonomous driving technology. From cutting-edge sensor systems to artificial intelligence algorithms, discover how researchers and engineers are propelling us toward a future where vehicles navigate with unparalleled precision, safety, and efficiency.</p> <p>The digital revolution has transformed the automotive industry. With the advent of 5G and beyond, this journal explores the transformative impact of connectivity on vehicles. From smart infrastructure to advanced driver-assistance systems, discover how the fusion of technology and automotive engineering is creating a connected ecosystem that enhances the driving experience and ensures unprecedented levels of safety.</p> <p>Innovation is not without its challenges, and this journal candidly addresses the hurdles faced by the mobility technology sector. From regulatory considerations to cybersecurity concerns, our editorial team examines the complexities that accompany progress, providing insightful perspectives on navigating the intricate landscape of modern automotive development.</p> <p>The issue shines a spotlight on ground-breaking research and development initiatives. Whether it is materials engineering for lightweight or the exploration of alternative fuel sources, the ARAI Journal is your gateway to the latest discoveries and advancements driving the automotive industry forward.</p> <p>As we embark on a new era of mobility, this issue of the ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology serves as a compass, guiding industry professionals, researchers, and enthusiasts through the dynamic landscape of technological innovation. Together, let us embrace the challenges, celebrate the successes, and collectively steer the course toward a future where mobility is not just a means of transportation but a catalyst for positive global change.</p> Dr. S. S. Thipse Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.0 Retrofitting of an Existing Garbage Tipper Truck with an Electric Powertrain and its Renewable Charging Station Concept Based on On-Grid Solar Charging https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/233 <p>To tackle the pollution problem the best way is to switch to electric vehicles but when we look at the statistical figures of India’s electric vehicle market we can observe the truth that the electric 2 and 3-wheeler market is good in India but the electric 4-wheeler market is not very good. Policymakers' worries about the growing importance of the Climate Change issue have contributed to India's rising levels of air pollution. There are a lot of gasoline and diesel automobiles on the road that is to blame for the severe pollution. 25 of the 100 most polluted cities in the world, or 14 of the list, are in India, according to a search for the 100 most polluted cities worldwide. Petrol and diesel vehicles continue to run in large numbers in India, causing extremely high pollution. The most harmful pollutants emitted into the environment are PM 2.5, SO2, CO, NOx, and PM 10, and they are also the primary pollutants. Since there are so many vehicles on the highways in Indian cities, we know that the cities are crowded. In such a situation, numerous electric vehicle manufacturers are traveling the nation to display their electric automobiles. Additionally, in India, if an electric vehicle's motor output is less than 250W, neither registration nor a driver's license is necessary to operate one of these vehicles. The category for EVs over 500W is the same as that for gasoline and diesel vehicles. The government will electrify all two-wheelers by the years 2024–2025, and all four-wheelers will be electrified by the years 2030–2040. The difficulty now is that many OEMs, auto-ancillaries, and automobile manufacturers intend to enter the market for electric cars in response to these encouraging moves. And when we discuss any vehicle, the mileage or the distance traveled is a key issue. Additionally, electric vehicles, such as 4-wheelers, will compete with conventional cars powered by internal combustion engines, which today give excellent mileage. However, reducing pollution is a crucial issue, and I think electric automobiles can do it more effectively. The transformation of an existing diesel tipper truck into an electric and on-grid-based solar renewable charger is described in this research. This paper discusses the creation and evaluation of various car parts and accessories. This outlines how to go from a mechanical drivetrain to an electric drivetrain. And the charger works on the on-grid solar-based renewable charger.</p> Utkarsh Gadkari Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 763 773 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.1 Algorithm based Calibration Strategies in an Electric Powertrain https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/229 <p>The latest trend in the automobile industry is electric energy usage for vehicle propulsion. The electrical energy conversion to mechanical energy via motor is the currently accepted and safe technology. The major challenge for this is the component protection strategies. Components such as the motor, battery etc. need to be protected to enhance the life cycle of the vehicle. Also, vehicle safety is of much importance to avoid any fatalities arising with regards to the mishandling of the components. This study suffices the component protection by developing algorithmbased strategies. The algorithms are pre-fed to the controller. Development of smart motor and battery is proposed via Battery Thermal management system. The energy used is of both AC as well DC form. Energy sources for the electric energy generation are different namely, Batteries, Fuel cell etc. Energy generated through chemical reaction is stored in the battery and is eventually utilized.</p> Siddharth Gandhi Abhijeet Chavan Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 774 787 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.2 Predicting base Engine Vibrations using Flexible Multi Body Dynamics Simulation https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/240 <p>Predicting the vibratory response of a base engine is appealing as it can speed up the engine development cycle and cut down testing cost. However, there are concerns regarding predictability of base engine vibration simulation models due to various factors. This study attempts to investigate this predictability and gives more insights on what factors can affect it. In the presented work, the vibratory response of a base engine is predicted through a flexible Multi Body Dynamics simulation. Cylinder pressure excitation on the cylinder head and pistons, and reciprocating inertia excitation, are considered as inputs in this flexible Multi Body Dynamics simulation. Effects arising from overhead moving components and gear train, have been excluded from this study. The predicted vibratory response of the base engine at particular locations, is compared with the vibratory response as measured using accelerometers mounted at those locations, during testing. A reasonable level of correlation can be seen between simulation and testing. Measures that can be taken to improve this correlation are also discussed.</p> Pranay Sharma Nikhil Rao Rentong Wang Pravin Kakde Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.3 Numerical Analysis and Experimental Validation of Temperature Induced Creep and Fatigue life of Inconel 740H and Haynes 282 https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/238 <p>The Nickel based super-alloys have gained lot of importance in the last decade or so owing to their applications in areas like power generation, military aircrafts, marine propulsion and nuclear reactors. Utilities worldwide are facing increased demand for additional electricity, reduced plant emissions and greater plant efficiency. To meet this challenge, it requires materials with very high temperature creep and fatigue strength and better coal ash corrosion resistance. For the realization of advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) thermal plant operating at service temperature and pressure about 700oC to 760oC and 24 MPa respectively, the use of Nickel based super alloys are indispensable. The two A-USC qualified alloys include Inconel 740H and Haynes 282. This study focus on improving the creep and fatigue life of the A-USC qualified alloys by predicting the optimum operating parameters through finite element modeling for temperature induced creep and fatigue analysis of the said A-USC alloys. The influence of various operating parameters like temperature, machining induced residual stress, surface finish, creep duration and fatigue loadings on output parameters like creep strain, elongation, creep and fatigue life were studied. Abaqus/Standard was used for the numerical simulation. Using ANOVA, the most influencing operating parameters were identified. It was observed that the machining induced residual stress and surface finish have greater influence on creep and fatigue life of alloys. Alloy with lower value of machining induced residual stress and better surface finish will have better creep and fatigue life. The proper validation of model was performed by comparing the results with relevant literature.</p> RAMAKRISHNAN P A AJITH RAMESH Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 803 819 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.4 Study on Various Position Sensing Technologies in Tractor Hitch Application https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/268 <p>Conventionally, In the tractors, hitch position is obtained using a contact-based position sensor, the sensor is attached to the rockshaft mechanically with gears or linkages. In this arrangement, there are incidences of failures when working with heavy implements, as rockshaft is under severe loading conditions which tends to induce cracks or failures in sensor mechanical linkages mounting area. This results in machine downtime and rockshaft repair costs to the customer. These mounting threads in hardened Rockshaft reduce material strength which impacts the lifting capacity. There is associated difficulty at assembly line and further during maintenance for linkage installation and adjustments. Also, over the period, linkages develop a play at joints due to the friction. In the present work, we are sensing the Hitch position with contactless sensor technology. A contactless Hall effect sensor is selected, and proto setup has been designed to measure the hitch position by integrating the sensor and target. The prototype consists of a fixed Sensor and a rotating metal (ferromagnetic) piece placed inside a 3D printed casing. The profile of metal piece is such that when it is rotated about the axis, the distance between Sensor and metal piece changes gradually. This causes different output voltage at different amount of rotation in metal piece. Results from manual bench testing show that the concept is working. The sensor voltage output varies according to the hitch position in the bench setup. A high voltage value when metal piece is nearer to magnet and low value when its farther. A future step is to automate this setup on a tractor to remove errors due to manual rotation. This would be an enabler to analyze the sensor behaviors like hysteresis, repeatability, linearity more accurately.</p> T Sandeep Koparde Prashant Hingne Abhijit Sewalkar Swarupanand Hallale Sanjeev Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 820 834 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.5 Experimental Assessment of Genset Performance for PCCI-DI Combustion Engine https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/269 <p>Applying the PCCI-DI combustion concept which can yield low emissions is tried for vehicular applications. However, much work has not been carried out on the genset engine which is a constant speed application. The PCCI can be achieved by various methods like port injection, late direct injection, early direct injection, and multiple direct injections to name a few. However in this case, it is achieved using the port injection. The two different port injection quantities are tried out. The first is with 3 ms pulse and the other with 5 ms pulse of port injection. In this study, PCCI-DI engine is assembled with the alternator to form a genset. The genset is tested for assessing its behavior in real-world conditions. The main trials to simulate the realworld condition are the load throw-on and load throw-off trials. The extreme case of these trials is to load the engine from no load to full load during the throw-on trials and reverse in throw-off trials. The results indicate the best performance in the case of pure DI combustion. With the use of port injection, the genset performance decorates. This is due to the fuel being injected in the port and it takes a finite time for the reaction to sudden loading and de-loading of the engine. The higher the amount of port fuel injection the higher the deterioration in response is observed. The result gives the actual performance and the response in all three combustion configurations. All three cases met the ISO 8528-5 G3 class requirements.</p> Hemant A. Kinikar A.B. Kanase-Patil Tushar A. Jadhav Dr. S. S. Thipse Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 835 841 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.6 Comparative Performance Assessment of Sizing of Electric Motor through Analytical Approach for Electric Vehicle Application https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/257 <p>For battery electric vehicle (BEV), electric motor is the only power source. The motor drive system in electric vehicle has many challenges like cost, weight, efficiency, detail torque speed characteristics, motor power rating. Accurate motor power rating prediction is very much necessary to fulfil the performance requirement of electric vehicle. Selection of oversized motor for Electric vehicle application results into overprice motor, more energy consumption and decline in vehicle range. Due to this there will expansion of battery size and increases the overall cost of vehicle. On the other hand, selection of undersized motor leads to poor vehicle performance that limits the drivability of vehicle. This paper gives detailed calculations of motor rating of electric motor. New approach is developed to predict the correct power rating of motor without affecting the desired vehicle performance. According to the requirement, accurate prediction of power rating of motor has been taken for cost efficient and upgradation the performance of motor. The work presented in this paper adopts a method of vehicle performance assessment on the basis of comparison with four different methods with new developed method. Traction motor is major &amp; most expensive component of EV. Selection of motor play’s crucial role in the development of electric vehicle. Undersized and oversized motor results in rise in cost of motor which ultimately increases the cost of vehicle. But by using appropriate motor this cost been reduced up to 50-60% with performance enhancement.</p> Shweta Suryavanshi Dr. Pravin M. Ghanegaonkar Dr. Ganesh K. Jadhav Sagar R Wankhede Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 842 855 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.7 Field Programmable Functional Safety Mechanisms Implementation using FPGA https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/258 <p>The topic of this report is to build an IC in form of the FPGA, consisting of different types of safety mechanisms, which depending on the application of the design, could help achieve either QM, ASIL B or ASIL D diagnostic coverage compliance. The selection of the Safety mechanisms could be made through configuration bits written in a register.</p> Priyank Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 856 882 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.8 Impact of Fused Deposition Modeling Process Parameters and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Characteristics and Product Quality: A Review https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/273 <p>Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is indeed one of the most commonly used methods of additive manufacturing, particularly for printing polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites. When compared to more conventional production meth ods like injection molding, the key benefits of FDM include producing components with intricate shapes, minimal material wastage, shorter production times, and lower costs because no tooling is needed. However, the strength and surface quality of the product produced using this technique are lower, that can be improved by selecting the optimized design variable and applying heat treatment depending on how the product will be used in an industry. This review paper provides an overview of the effect of different process parameters on mechanical properties, print time, and surface characteristics of the parts made of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites in addition to the challenges encountered during the printing of composites. It also discusses the new material’s development, such as natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites, the impact of heat treatment, and the void formation influence on the mechanical properties, build time, dimensional accuracy, and surface finish of 3D-printed parts.</p> Mohd Yousuf Ali G. Krishna Mohana Rao B. Anjaneya Prasad Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 883 912 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.9 Accelerated Life Prediction of Automotive Elastomers using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis https://araijournal.com/index.php/arai/article/view/274 <p>Polymers find their use in a variety of products and their share in a particular application like automobile components such as gaskets, O-ring, Sealing, Hoses, Fuel line, Fuel filter necks, float, etc. in vehicle fuel system is increasing day by day. In some applications a component made from polymer is subjected to elevated temperatures for prolonged durations and are prone to failure due to thermal stresses. Therefore, understanding of failure mechanism is important to predict the life of polymer particularly in cases of critical applications and where it is used for longer durations. The Arrhenius equation is utilized for prediction of assessment of life of polymers through due to of the impact of temperature over time. Lifetime predictions are conventionally made by exposing sample polymers to various temperatures for prolonged duration with periodic measurement of desired properties, which is a very time-consuming process. In present research, two materials viz., FKM and PVC/NBR blend were analyzed using thermo-gravimetric assessment to simulate failure utilizing the decomposition behavior caused by thermal effects. The thermo-gravimetric analysis was performed at various heating rates of 5 to 25 °C/min. The rate of change of thermal decomposition of FKM and PVC/NBR blend were evaluated using Arrhenius equation. Different weight-loss percentages (5%, 10% and 20%) during TGA were considered as failure criterion. Activation energy (E) was calculated and thermal life of was predicted for both the materials. This study provided a quick method with considerable reduction in efforts, cost and time for prediction of life of polymers by using kinetics parameters derived from experiments conducted at higher temperatures.</p> Moqtik Bawase Sushil Chaudhari Dr. S. S. Thipse Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-12-15 2023-12-15 3 4 913 923 10.37285/ajmt.3.4.10