ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology <p>ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology is a print and online technical journal in automotive and its related fields. It is a publication from <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARAI</a> in collaboration with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BSP Books Pvt. Ltd.</a>, Hyderabad. Its aim is to explore the knowledge of automotive professionals and to meet the needs of both academia and industry in terms of research and development. This Journal will be an endeavour to promote research, innovation and new ideas in various fields of automotive technology. It is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication.</p> <p>This journal invites technical papers from scholars, academicians and professionals associated with the field of Automotive from academia and industry.</p> <p><strong>Article Type:</strong><br /><strong>1. Research articles</strong>: They should include hypothesis, background study, methods, results, interpretation of findings, and a discussion of possible implications.</p> <p><strong>2. Review articles</strong>: Articles should provide a critical and constructive analysis of existing published literature in a field, through summary, analysis, and comparison, often identifying specific gaps or problems and providing recommendations for future research.</p> BSP Books Private Limited en-US ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Impact of 20% Ethanol-blended Gasoline (E20) on Metals and Non-metals used in Fuel-system Components of Vehicles <p>Ethanol is considered as a potential biofuel for blending with gasoline and, in India, it is planned to increase the ethanol content to 20 percent in gasoline by year 2025 from present allowable limit of maximum 10 percent. It is important to evaluate the impact of E20 fuel on the materials used in fuel-system components. An evaluation of 8 metals, 6 elastomers and 4 plastics used in various fuel-system components was conducted through systematic exercise of laboratory immersion following standard methods like SAE J1747 and SAE J 1748 with all the quality and quality assurance measures. The study was conducted with E20 as test fuel and commercial gasoline (BS IV) as a baseline fuel for comparative assessment. Impact of E20 on metals was evaluated through calculation of corrosion rates in mm/year based on data obtained for change in mass post-immersion in above fuels. Similarly, impact of elastomers and plastics was evaluated through observed changes in properties like mass, volume, tensile strength, elongation, impact strength and hardness. <br />Impact of E20 on metals tested was found to be insignificant based on the corrosion rates. Polychloroprene, SBR, HNBR and Fluoroelastomer were found to perform similar or better in most of the properties with E20. Impact of E20 on NBR-PVC and Epichlorohydrin was more as compared to commercial gasoline. Similar changes in properties of PA12, PBT and Acetal were observed in both the fuels. Impact of E20 on tensile strength and volume change properties of PA66 was found to be more than commercial gasoline. The vital information generated can be utilised by design engineers for selection, modification of materials for various components of fuel-system of vehicles</p> Moqtik A. Bawase Dr. Sukrut S. Thipse Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp1 8 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.1 Impact of PGM Loading in DOC on Emission in Diesel Engine Off Road Vehicle to Meet CEVIV Norms <p>Experimental study was done for evaluation of different type of PGM loading in Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for off road vehicle. The main purpose of DOC is to reduce the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide from exhaust line and increasing the DOC outlet temperature, which used in soot oxidation in DPF and increased conversion efficiency of SCR. It is very challenging to meet the emission norm with minimum loading of DOC for low cost and durable approach for non-auto application. Test results highlights impact on emission with different PGM loading in DOC. This paper focused on the calibration of DOC model with different loading and observed that behaviour on THC and CO in exhaust system. Minimum Temperature constraint was come in NRTC rather than NRSC. With low, exhaust gas temperature white smoke observed, when unburned HCs was adsorbed on DOC. Data taken to understand thermal effect on DOC with different loading in aged condition. It observed that maximum DOC loading, conversion efficiency went up to 98% in THC after heating up. DOC loading is also responsible for conversion of NO to NO<sub>2</sub>, which is used in conversion of SCR efficiency. Detailed comparison and analysis was done to understand the impact of PGM loading in DOC for NO<sub>2</sub> formation, exotherm, HC &amp; CO light off temperature behaviour.</p> Abhijit Sahare Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp9 13 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.2 Study of Impact of Engine and Vehicle Level Parameters for Reduction in Engine Oil Consumption for Advanced Emission Architecture Commercial Vehicles <p>Automotive industry has seen implementation of advanced emission regulations like BS-VI in India along with growing market demand for increased product performance and reduction in total cost of ownership. This has made the engine architecture more intricate leading to complex interaction among engine and vehicle level parameters. This poses technical challenge for achieving critical product attributes like increased power density, higher fluid economy and reduced oil consumption (OC). <br>The current paper focusses on reducing engine oil consumption across diverse duty cycles using simulation tools, vehicle data analytics and test cell Design of Experiments (DOE). The contribution of oil consumption mechanisms viz. oil evaporation, oil throw and oil transport have been understood across different loads and duty cycles patterns. The critical parameters at engine and vehicle levels are identified affecting low load and high load oil consumption. Vehicle testing is conducted, and the real time data analytics was used to identify correlation of vehicle duty cycle parameters like percentageof Idling,Thermal Management Operation, Coolant Temperature, etc. with measured oil consumption. Piston ring dynamics simulation has been used to optimize critical ring parameters impacting oil consumption through directional trends. DOE was conducted in engine test cell environment to assess effect of critical parameters like combustion temperature and oil ring tension for high load oil consumption. <br>The new test cycles for verifying oil consumption at various loads are described. Results of interaction and main effects for individual factors are discussed. The parameters having weaker co-relations are also highlighted. The proposed solution is a combination of piston ring pack geometry features, thermal management calibration strategyand vehicle idling controls. The demonstration of final recipe of solution at vehicle level showed substantial improvement in oil consumption over baseline as well as over global industry benchmark. The improvement is demonstrated in the actual vehicle applications for mining tippers and tractors&nbsp;</p> Navneet Gautam Tushar S Kanikdale Ajay Khare Sachin Paygude Arshad A Shaikh Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp14 24 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.3 Light Weighting of Buses using Aluminium with Safety and Durability Considerations <p>Automobiles, while making living easy and convenient, have also made human life more complex and vulnerable to toxic emissions. Transport sector is huge contributor in polluting air in the entire world in the tune of around 23%.Mass transport uses buses as the medium for generalized and convenient means for commutation from one place to other. Similar pattern is observed in India for mass transportation mainly in the cities. However, commuting through buses comes with penalty of environmental pollution. City buses are large contributor in GHG emission and can be considered as prime candidates for making any kind of changes which will help in reducing environmental pollution. Immense potential lies in existing bus designs for weight optimization which has direct impact in improving fuel economy and hence will have sustainable impact in reducing carbon emissions.</p> <p>This paper outlines systematic approach used for development of lightweight buses using Aluminium addressing safety, durability and necessary regulatory requirements. Effective use of aluminium in development of lightweight bus structure is demonstrated in this project. While designing lightweight structure for weight optimization due care is taken for addressing prevailing regulatory norms related to AIS:052 bus body code, AIS:153 outlining safety requirements and Urban Bus Specification issued by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways specifying strength and safety requirements of bus structure. <br>Aluminium bus designs developed shows more than 30% weight reduction compared to steel structured buses of similar class. Fuel efficiency improvement in the tune of minimum 8% and maximum 10% are observed during field level trials.</p> M. A. Patwardhan P. A. Nirmal R. S. Mahajan Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp25 33 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.4 Performance Evaluation of Self-Piercing Riveted and Resistance Spot Welded Dissimilar Steel Joints <p>Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is a mechanical joining process that has the potential to replace resistance spot welding (RSW) and is being adopted in the automotive industry.In this study, a dissimilar stack configuration widely used in the automotive industry was used. Joining was performed using self-piercing riveting and resistance spot welding processes. Welding parameters in spot welding were optimized to produce anugget with a diameter similar to the rivet shank. Tensile and fatigue attributes of these joints were assessed to evaluate the joint performance. Additionally, microstructure-property correlation was performed to evaluate the failuremode and susceptible region in the joint that can lead to crack initiation and failure.</p> Akhil Kishore V T Brajesh Asati Nikhil Shajan Kanwer Singh Arora Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp34 42 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.5 Performance of Thermal Barrier Coating on Exhaust System Component <p>Thermal management in automobiles is important to keep the passenger cabin and heat sensitive components away from thermal effects. Hence various types of insulation methods are used to reduce the thermal effects. Heatshields are the most common method of thermal insulation. They can be classified into various types based on their construction architecture and insulation materials. Some of the heat shielding systems contain fibre materials that are hazardous to health due to their carcinogenic effects and hence not recommended. With increasing space constraints in the compact vehicle architecture designs, packaging space is premium, limiting the size of heatshields. In addition, from durability aspect, heatshields alone are not adequate to withstand high temperatures during the service life of exhaust systems. Hence the role of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) as an alternative solution comes effective. <br>TBC’s are ceramic coatings which can take care of extended heat loads and temperature differences. This coating not only provides thermal insulation but also improves the fatigue life of substrate material. Hence in this paper, the application of TBC on exhaust system components with respect to thermal insulation and thermo mechanical fatigue are studied. Virtual analysis and physical test are carried out to validate the results. TBC coating on exhaust component shows promising results.&nbsp;</p> Dhanasekaran Radhakrishnan Raja R Srikari Srinivasan Libin George Alexander Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp43 50 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.6 Driving Safety through ADAS: An Indian Perspective <p>Analysis of the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), shows that driver error is a factor in 94% of crashes. Although it is important to remember multiple factors contribute to all crashes, the largest portion of driver error issues involve the driver failing to recognize hazards, including distraction. Around 3,700 people die in traffic every day around the world, and 100,000 are injured. The automotive industry is striving to make driving safer. ADAS in India is comparatively in a nascent stage. However, it is gradually gaining pace. The government's upcoming safety regulations and consumer awareness will give further impetus to this movement. <br>So, Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) is equipping cars and drivers with advance information and technology to make them become aware of the environment and handle potential situations in better way semi-autonomously. High-quality training and test data is essential in the development and validation of ADAS systems which lay the foundation for autonomous driving technology. <br>In addition to this, ADAS systems need to be very safe and robust, with the ability to perform in a variety of driving scenarios, and be very secure, being immune from any external cyber-attacks. In order to make ADAS systems safer, the AV will be required to drive more than a billion miles on real roads, taking tens and sometimes hundreds of years to drive those miles, considering even the most aggressive testing assumptions. Every small update to the AV will require another billion miles of testing to be approved for real world use. Moreover, the more advanced the technology becomes, the more miles will need to de driven. Real word testing plays a very crucial role in ADAS and AV development and testing. Nevertheless, relying only on real world testing will significantly slow down the development and testing of such technologies. This is where simulation comes into play. <br>With the primary objective of road safety improvement, ADAS functionalities will definitely play a big role for automotive industry. In order to tackle Indian specific road infrastructure conditions, and thus improving the safety, a complete tool-chain for developing, deploying and validating ADAS functionalities need to be developed. The presented work shares insights of each and every aspect of this tool-chain with experimental results and real world correlations.</p> Ujjwala Karle Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp51 60 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.7 Thermal Modelling of Battery Pack of an Electric Vehicle using Computational Fluid Dynamics <p>As Today, conventional engines are being replaced by electric vehicles due to environmental concerns and concern about the exhaustion of fossil fuels. Li-ion cells are often used in EV’s because of their high energy density. The thermal behaviour of the batteries is crucial not only for safety operation but also for their capacity and life. This article focusses primarily on the effect of inclusion of conductive material and conditioned air on the battery module. A three-dimensional flow and thermal analysis of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic lithium-ion cells fitted in aluminum structure. The flow and thermal simulation is carried out at the peak discharge of the batteries i.e. 2C rating [17] using a commercial CFD package. The results are compared with the base line model analysis which is performed with same parameters. The temperature is decreased by 7.2oC on average for the addition of fins to the battery module. The increased load on the AC unit is calculated as well when the air is directed to battery module and sufficient modifications for the system are suggested. </p> Bokam Surya Sashikanth Bokam Ch. Sainath Reddy K Ravi Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp61 68 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.8 A Systematic Approach to Evaluation of Various Cooling Strategies for EV Battery Pack Prismatic Cell using Analytical and Numerical Methods <p>Technology to maximize energy density and life of Lithium-ion batteries at a gradually reducing cost is evolving day by day. Fast charging of the battery pack has become one of the major requirements of electric vehicles. Such a requirement invariably poses certain challenges to the cells of the EV battery pack. One of them is to achieve an efficient and an optimal thermal management of the battery pack to maintain uniform operating temperature of the cells and within the manufacturers’ allowable range to ultimately increase the lifespan and reliability of the battery pack. The current work discusses the design strategies of cell cooling, heat load estimation &amp; features of different cooling strategies. A MS Excel spreadsheet-based design tool was developed to quickly estimate the cell temperature gradient. The results from the spreadsheet-based tool, which was based on fundamental equations, correlated well with 3D CFD simulation results. The results were analysed and the cooling strategy for the battery pack was decided based on the analytical and numerical values obtained from the analysis of various cell parameters.&nbsp;</p> Yogesh P Dol Vivek Anami Yogesh Jaju Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp69 76 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.9 Prognostics and Health monitoring of Lead acid battery <p>The ever-increasing number of electrical loads in the commercial vehicle emphasizes the significance of lead acid battery used for starting and the powering of electrical systems in a commercial vehicle. In order to monitor the health of the battery, parameters SOC (State of Charge) and SOH (State of Heath) are introduced. The existing methods to calculate these parameters use impedance monitoring based approach which requires an expensive current sensor. This paper describes a smart algorithm and the experimental verification of the algorithm that uses only voltage values for predicting the failure of the battery. The voltage waveforms during a cranking event is studied by the ECU (Engine Control Unit) and the health of the battery is determined based on it. A parameter, SOH measure is obtained from the algorithm and the value of this parameter reduces with increase in life of the battery. If the value of the SOH measure reduces below a threshold, then the failure of the battery is predicted before the actual failure. The algorithm is validated with the help of real time data obtained from the vehicles. This method of calculating the SOH is resourceful and cost-effective as it exploits the data that’s already available in the ECU namely battery voltage and ambient temperature. Thus, it does not warrant an addition of sensor to the system in place.</p> Ashwin R Dr.Suryanarayana Prasad A.N Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 1 Inaugural pp77 81 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.10 Foreword & Message Prof. Anil D. Sahasrabudhe Copyright (c) 2021 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2021-11-11 2021-11-11 1 Inaugural 10.37285/ajmt.1.0.0