ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-04-18T12:38:03+00:00 Dr. A. Madhava Rao Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN: 2583-3707 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>About the Journal: </strong>The ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology is an online and print technical journal in automotive and its related fields. It is a publication from <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARAI</a> in collaboration with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BSP Books Pvt. Ltd.</a>, Hyderabad. Its aim is to explore the knowledge of automotive professionals and to meet the needs of both academia and industry in terms of research and development. This journal will endeavour to promote research, innovation, and new ideas in various fields of automotive technology. It is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. <a title="Read more &gt;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Read more &gt; </strong></a></p> Design of a Vacuum Independent, Power Assisted Brake by Wire System using a Novel Electro-Magnetic Brake Booster 2023-04-11T04:21:25+00:00 Pedapati Harsha Vardhan <p>With an increasing demand in the market towards electrical vehicles through technological advancements in the automotive field like, automated driving assistance that which have resulted in higher safety requirements and new innovations in the braking system, such as vacuum-independent, automated braking, and regenerative braking, play a crucial role in the vehicle's comfort and economics. However, the classic vacuum brake booster is no longer capable of meeting these requirements. A revolutionary Electro-Magnetic brake booster system is suggested in this research; this system is aimed to perform the function of boosting or enhancing the driver's pedal power despite remaining dependent on the vacuum source. Such an Electro-magnetic brake booster is mainly composed of an Electro-magnetic core plate, a ferromagnetic actuating plate and an ECU. It consumes electrical energy and converts into magnetic force to attract the metallic actuating plate, which is mechanically coupled to the pushrod of the master cylinder. However, the power required for braking (developing pressure in a master cylinder) is provided by the electrical power source. The core plate is associated with a pole as the electromagnet cores are mounted on one side of it. By incorporating a pedal pressure sensor linked to the ECU, which can control the electric power input to this core plate. Thus, the magnetic force developed is used in pulling the Actuating plate. In turn, it builds up the required pressure in the master cylinder. This novel Electro-Magnetic brake booster can be a better solution to satisfy the drawbacks of the existing brake boosters such as complexity in the structure and mechanism. Thus, this brake booster can be joined in substantial vehicles, autos and can be utilized as driver brake assistance for future Electric Vehicles by making a few upgrades in the ECU and the servo.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Studying Modern Formula 1 Front Wing at Low Cornering Speeds 2023-04-11T04:36:14+00:00 P. Nimje R. Kakde <p>A simulation-based study of three different types of front wing designs used in the modern Formula 1 cars was done. The study mainly focuses on the aerodynamic forces that a Formula One car generates mainly the Downforce, the Drag force, &amp; the Lateral force at low cornering speeds. These forces were studied in detail &amp; taking a closer look at how they migrate during the dynamic conditions the car is thrown at various Side Slip (Yaw) Angles, these results were compared with the wing Scuderia Ferrari used in the 1998 formula 1 championship to better understand the inherent problems faced in those previous designs. A brief study of the flow field &amp; flow lines was conducted along with the vortex generation for all three wings. Vortex formation and management is a prominent part of research being carried out for a formula 1 car, so a brief study on the phenomenon of vortex generation &amp; Y250 vortex formation was also carried out. A test on ride height and vorticity was also studied when the ride height was varied and the values were analysed. A study on the effect of the flow field of the upper element on the lower element was carried out where the 5th element was removed from each of the three wings &amp; the effect on the downforce &amp; drag value was analysed along with the pressure field.</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Effect of Forging Grain Flow on Performance of Hypoid Gear Set - Case Study 2023-04-11T04:46:56+00:00 Yathish Rao <p>Gear sets are one of the prime components in rear axle assembly that drives the wheel by taking the power from gear box. Typically forged gears are used for automotive applications in order to perform to its maximum level while in their service. In this case study heavy truck axle hypoid gear sets with deeper gear ratio (&gt; 6) are considered. The batch-A &amp; batch-B samples are produced through two separate forging routes. Batch A sample is processed through press forge route &amp; Batch B samples are through ring rolling route. Both the batches (4 samples of each) are tested for gear set fatigue bench test validation with particular torque. Test suspended upon failure of the parts. The failure mode of both the batch A &amp; batch B are fatigue in nature &amp; fractured at the tooth root due to root bending phenomenon. But the life of batch A is 58892 ring rear cycles where that of Batch B are is 46496 ring gear cycles. There is drop of 21% in life of gearset performance. Fracture analysis conducted &amp; complete metallurgical results tabulated shows no significant difference in raw material, heat treatment, dimensional &amp; any other parameters. Ishikawa diagram plotted to understand the root cause. The only difference is forging process. Both the samples are analyzed for the grain flow pattern. The batch A gears being made through press forging route are having the well defined grain flow pattern runs in part in radial direction. The batch B gears being made through ring rolling route are having the grain flow in the circumferential direction. In gear tooth cutting method, the cutter moves from outer diameter to inner diameter in both the batches. While doing so the batch A gears having radial grain flow, the cutting action will be along the grain flow. The grain flow in the tooth is not cut &amp; they will have good bonding with the gear tooth root. This grain flow bonding enhances the resistances to tooth root bending fatigue characteristics. But in case of batch B gears having the circumferential grain flow, the cutter cuts the tooth in transverse direction of grain flow. This makes the individual tooth will not have grain flow bonding at the tooth root. Such grain flow pattern hinders the resistance to gear tooth root bending fatigue characteristic. This leads to the early failure of batch B gear than batch A gears. This case study shows that grain flow has great effect on fatigue performance. The gear tooth of press forge can take more deflection or bending fatigue loading condition than the ring rolling route, resulting in higher part performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Performance Prediction, Optimisation and Validation of a CNG Engine Intake Manifold of a Commercial Vehicle Using Transient CFD Analysis 2023-04-11T04:52:15+00:00 Geetesh Waghela Tushar A Patil Bhoopendra Tiwari Ashok Kumar Patidar <p>Developing countries like India have large consumer markets driven by huge demands. Commercial vehicles play a critical role in full filing these demands. Commercial vehicles increasingly face stringent emission norms criteria and hence designing an ICE-powertrain with optimum operating efficiency becomes paramount. Intake manifold is the critical part of an internal combustion engine that supplies fuel/ air mixture to all the cylinders combustion chambers. It ensures a uniform mixture at cylinder inlet for better mixing inside the cylinders for better volumetric efficiency. Uneven distribution of fuel/air mixture causes unstable torque and unburnt fuel which fails to meet the emission norms. It also results in uneven temperatures in each cylinder because of cylinder misfiring. In current paper, 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to investigate the variance and uniformity of CNG/air mixture at the outlet of intake manifold. Commercial CFD tool Ansys Fluent is used to study the flow distribution of mixture inside the manifold and runners. Initial estimation of flow pattern is done by performing a steady state simulation to predict the uniformity index of CNG at cylinder inlet. For detailed investigation, transient simulation is performed by taking fresh air and CNG mass flow rate as a function of crank angle. In this paper, mesh dependence study was done initially to achieve an optimum cell count with good accuracy. A detailed transient analysis using multi-species modelling for air &amp; CNG was done using automated scripts with time steps as small as 1 degree crank angle rotation coupled with injection pressure and injection timing study. This helped to identify critical areas and optimise the design to improve the mass flow rate variance from 15-20% for baseline case to 6-7% for final design, and also improve the uniformity index. It also helped reduce the CNG engine mis-firing issue. The results have been well validated with Laboratory Test Results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Vibration Reduction in Passenger Vehicle by Optimization of Propeller Shaft Design 2023-04-11T05:13:20+00:00 V. Sundarayya R. Yoganand M. Kalidasan <p>In Passenger segments, vehicles floor vibration is one of the major cause which leads to discomfort for passengers. There are several locations for vibration, one of the location is Floor of the bus where passengers will feel the vibration directly while sitting on the seats and while standing on the Gangways. So acceleration levels in passenger segment should be as per AIS 153 standard. The objective of this paper is, of all the available causes for vibration, we will discuss about the middle floor vibrations raised by Propeller shaft and how to mitigate the problem by various focused design proposals on Propeller shaft. Here, we will be reviewing the Bus segment which has a Double Piece Propeller shaft design configuration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Effect of Drivetrain Configuration on Handling Characteristics of Tadpole Type Three-Wheeler 2023-04-11T05:25:02+00:00 Nishanth Krishna Raj Purohit J.S. Rohit Avasarala Venkata Srivatsa Sharanbassappa S Patil <p>The world’s first automobile built by Karl Benz was powered by a single-cylinder four-stroke engine which was placed at the rear part of the three-wheeled chassis. Since then, the automobile industry has drastically evolved, especially four wheelers. Nowadays, three-wheelers are gaining popularity as they are more fuel efficient than four-wheelers while being more stable than twowheelers. The inherent cost advantages of a threewheeler also make them more affordable. Autorickshaws, having delta configuration, are extensively utilized in several Asian countries like India, Indonesia, Pakistan and others. But they are risky during braking in a turn due to a single front wheel. Alternatively, a tadpole type three-wheeler is safer in braking in a turn and provides better steering control. This three-wheeler configuration also provides better aerodynamic design. They have been recently adopted in European countries for personal mobility and logistics. Therefore, the paper analyses the stability of a Tadpole type three-wheeler based on various standard simulation tests such as Constant Radius test, Acceleration test and Double Lane Change test. These tests provide various results such as Steering Angle, Understeer behaviour and Longitudinal Acceleration where information regarding handling characteristics can be studied. A comparison between Front Wheel Drive and Rear Wheel Drive configuration is carried out to arrive at a conclusion for selecting the right drivetrain configuration. In order to achieve this, a Multibody Dynamics model is created using MSC Adams Car by assembling the various subsystems namely Front Suspension, Rear Suspension, Steering, Brakes, Body, Powertrain and Tires. Simulation results have been compared with existing literature for the verification of the model.</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Fabrication of Automatic Acceleration Control System in Vehicles 2023-04-11T05:33:59+00:00 Venkata Raghavendra Rao Mullapudi Sandhi Raja Sekhar Naveen Garapati <p>In General Indian Road Transporting Conditions is concerned, mischance’s are turning into an everyday cause an endeavor has been made in this venture to diminish such setbacks. In our venture a fast sign is given and programmed braking is connected by removing the fuel supply to the motor when the setup speed is Overpassed. Our Objective is to plan a programmed increasing speed control in activity flag/Sign Board. The setup of the model does not permit abusing the activity rules. This model comprises of an engine with rack and pinion course of action, point of confinement switches and the quickening agent. This venture is basically created to maintain a strategic distance from mishaps because of fast vehicles and furthermore to empower general society to cross the street with no threat from rapid vehicles. Normally the drivers drive the vehicles at rapid Speed without considering general society in speed constrained ranges as well. Despite the fact that the activity controls them we can't accomplish the full reaction from them. Likewise it is impractical to screen those regions at unsurpassed to control their speed. File Terms-Automatic Acceleration, High speed Indication.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Mass Flow Rate Estimation Study of Oxygen, Hydrogen and Water in Fuel Cell 2023-04-11T05:47:02+00:00 Siddharth Gandhi siddharthgandhi@LIVE.COM Abhijeet Chavan <p>The lately technology advancements of usage for fuel alternate energy source has gained tremendous pace with several organizations leading active development in the same sector. From all the technologies currently under advance stage of development, hydrogen powered fuel cell technology looks to be promising with very little disadvantages. Major challenge in the same field is the efficiency and thermodynamic voltage improvement by different avenues. The impacts of change in pressure in supplied hydrogen and oxygen, its effects on thermodynamic voltage and possible efficiency improvement. With the improvement in fuel cell voltage, number of fuel cells requirement can be dropped reducing the required area for mounting on mobile applications. This study details the calculations of required fuel flow, air flow, exhaust flow etc. with different pressure is determined. Supercharged fuel cell conceptual study is performed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Effect of Gas Content on Mechanical behavior of Case Hardened Boron Steel 2023-04-11T05:54:51+00:00 M. K. Krishnamoorthy G. K. Sivakumar Dr. Koorella Krishna <p>Boron containing steels are widely used in gear and shaft application. Addition of Boron to case hardened steel enhances hardenability resulting in good impact strength and wear resistant properties. In this present study, the influence of 100 and 150 PPM Nitrogen gas on Boron steel has been analyzed. The microstructure, hardenability, hardness, and impact strength has been evaluated. The Impact test was carried out as per standard and Fractography analysis has been done. Fine grain structure was observed in the higher Nitrogen content samples indicates better mechanical properties. The impact strength has been improved nearly 9% in the higher Nitrogen containing samples because of fine grain structure. Combination of intergranular with dimple mode of fracture was observed in the high Nitrogen containing samples.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology ARAI Indigenously Developed OCPP Server and OCPP Stack for EV Charging Station 2023-04-11T06:01:03+00:00 U. Sreekumar A. Anand Deshpande B. Abhijit Mulay G. Parag Mengaji <p>Paper contains the work done on “ARAI indigenously developed OCPP server and OCPP stack for EV Charging station”. At present, India faces the challenge to locate, monitor and control the chargers situated at different locations, as there is no backend communication. We are experiencing shortage of conventionally generated power and fluctuation in the availability of power due to heavy load during the peak hours. To overcome this, all the chargers need to have backend communication so that the maximum charging rate of the chargers upon the availability of power in the grid can be controlled and monitored. OPEN Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is a communication protocol that help the EV charging station to communicate with the central server and update the charging details along with the information like location the total unit consumed etc. The protocol also helps the Server to remotely monitor and control the EV charging station located even at remote location of the country. ARAI have indigenously developed OCPP server for the automotive industry which is being utilized to test and validate the OCPP compliance of the EV charger and server. ARAI server and stack supports the most recent version OCPP 2.0.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology Editorial 2023-04-18T12:38:03+00:00 Dr. Anindya Deb 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology