ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology <p><strong>ISSN: 2583-3707 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>About the Journal: </strong>The ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology is an online and print technical journal in automotive and its related fields. It is a publication from <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARAI</a> in collaboration with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BSP Books Pvt. Ltd.</a>, Hyderabad. Its aim is to explore the knowledge of automotive professionals and to meet the needs of both academia and industry in terms of research and development. This journal will endeavour to promote research, innovation, and new ideas in various fields of automotive technology. It is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. <a title="Read more &gt;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Read more &gt; </strong></a></p> Mr. Nitin B. Dhande en-US ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2583-3707 Study on Application of AI Controllers for Speed Control of Motors <p>Building high-performance motor drives is vital for industrial uses. A high-performance motor drive system must be quick in terms of dynamic speed order monitoring and load regulation. The motor controllers can provide system protection by regulating or limiting torque, protecting against overloads, and safeguarding against mistakes. Many motor controllers include logic for managing applications as well as additional features like data recording and data collecting. The purpose is to study various tuning techniques for motor speed controllers using Artificial intelligence. The controllers such as proportional-integral (PI) controller and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller have been considered here. Most frequently used Artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy logic controller (FLC), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Bat Algorithm, Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Ziegler and Nichols (ZN) Algorithm are considered by their decision-making capability. In the proposed work a rigorous literature review is done for analyzing the performance of AI-based controllers. This will help other researchers to understand various aspects of the said controllers, particularly the technology involved. In-depth review and application of AI controllers are highlighted using various charts and graphs for easy understanding.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: AI motor controllers, Fuzzy Logic, PID controller, PI controller, Genetic algorithm, PSO algorithm, Ziegler and Nichols algorithm, Bat algorithm, Adaptive Tabu search algorithm</p> Ketan Kalke Dr. Bhumeshwar Patle Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 635 646 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.1 Assessment of M15 Fuel on BS IV 2 and 3-Wheeler <p>Across the world, methanol is evolving as a clean, sustainable transportation fuel for the future. Methanol fuel is an alternative biofuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with gasoline or independently. Methanol's high octane and oxygen content produces a cleaner burning gasoline which significantly reduces vehicle exhaust emissions. A lower boiling temperature for better fuel vaporization in cold engines, the highest H-C ratio for a lower carbon intensity fuel, and no Sulphur contamination which improves catalytic converter operation. In the paper, a study is carried out for the blend of 15% methanol (M15) with Gasoline on BS-IV vehicles and a comparison is done for the tailpipe emissions. A gap analysis of vehicles with E0 and M15 fuel is done with baseline emission testing along with full throttle performance of the vehicle to check the effect of oxygenated fuel (M15). The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of M-15 fuel on 2 and 3-wheeler vehicles in the as-is condition without any engine tuning and retaining the base gasoline (E0) settings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: M15 fuel, methanol, BS IV, blended fuel, tailpipe emission, hygroscopic, 2 and 3-wheelers, mass emission, fuel economy, NOx</p> Mohammad I Jamadar Sandeep D Rairikar Shailesh B. Sonawane Prasanna S. Sutar Debjyoti Bandyopadhyay Dr. S S Thipse Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 647 657 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.2 Vibration Analysis of an On-Board Charger Assembly for Electrical Mobility <p>This article deals with the vibration analysis of an On-Board Charger assembly to check the strength of its components with respect to vibrational load. On-Board Charger (OBC) is a system which is built for electrical vehicles to charge high-voltage battery packs by converting AC power from an external charging source into a DC voltage. The primary role of an onboard charger is to manage the flow of electricity from the grid to the battery. This means that the OBC should fit the necessities of the grid in locations wherever it will be used. Onboard chargers enable plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles (BEV) to charge anywhere, not just at designated charging locations, wherever there is AC power. The OBC which is studied in this article is used in three-wheeler vehicles and the weight of this assembly is quite more because of the heat sink and other electronic components; so it is important to check its strength through a vibrational point of view, as induced vibrational load in the vehicle is more while driving the vehicle. Here, the focus will be on all housing and its internal components such as PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and its electrical components. Electrical components connect with PCB with solder joints which provide mechanical and electrical connections between components and PCB. Simulation of an OBC assembly is done by using the ANSYS tool in which modal and harmonic analysis is carried out to check assembly’s strength. The main focus will be on the natural frequencies of the assembly; the aim is to increase the natural frequencies of the assembly above 150 Hz to avoid the resonating condition. The frequency response analysis was done for the range of 50-150 Hz for the acceleration of 15g and stresses and deformation of OBC assembly components are observed after frequency response analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: On-Board Charger; Solder joint; Frequency; Vibration, Harmonic analysis, Electrical Mobility, Materials, NVH, Simulation</p> Shantaram Jadhav Shantanu Kalurkar Srikanth T.S. Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 658 665 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.3 Functional Safety for Automatic Emergency Braking based on ISO 26262 <p>The popularity of electronic systems had increased in automobiles. A lot of ECUs, electronics sensors, bus are used in automobile systems which has made the system complex. Safety analysis should be done to ensure functional safety. IEC has introduced the standard, ISO 26262 for safety analysis of electrical/electronic/programmable systems in automobiles to reduce and control systematic faults. ISO 26262 give guidelines to define and follow the techniques strategically for the entire product life cycle of the vehicle. It does not explain how functional safety is done but it will guide us throughout the process. In this paper, we have analysed the Automatic Emergency Braking system as per the ISO 26262 guidelines. AEB is a significantly important active safety system which relies on electronic sensors, ECU and electronic actuators. The proper functioning of these electronic components could save the hazard from happening. We have determined the ASIL level, we determine safety goal and safety requirement, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure mode and Effect analysis. Also, we performed an HW safety analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Electronic Sensors, functional safety, ISO 26262, Automatic Emergency Braking, Medini Analyze, Fault Tree analysis (FTA), Electro-Hydraulic Braking System, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Model-Based Safety Analysis, Safety Goals, HARA, FTA</p> Ananda Adhikari Aspak Saban Shirish Bohora Viranchi Shastri Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 666 685 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.4 Performance Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol Hydrogen Blends at MBT Spark Timing on Multi-cylinder SI Engine <p>Alternative fuels are the need of the current situation as conventional fuels are depleting very quickly and causing increase in amounts of pollution. Hydrogen as a clean fuel with Higher Calorific Value plays important role in increasing combustion characteristics. When compared with the performance of ethanol as a fuel, ethanolhydrogen blends have demonstrated a 5% increase in power production, 15% reduction in hydrocarbon emissions, and 12% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. All tests are conducted at speed of 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, and 4500 rpm with the Wide-Open-Throttle (WOT) condition. CO &amp; HC emissions are reduced using ethanol, whereas hydrogen addition enhanced the decreased power output, higher brake-specific fuel consumption and in cylinder pressure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Emission, combustion, ethanol, hydrogen, SI engine, alternate fuels, conventional fuels, renewable energy sources, MBT spark timing, NOx emissions, nitrogen, Maximum Brake Torque</p> Dr. Pravin T. Nitnaware Dr. J G Suryawanshi Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 686 694 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.5 Study of Effective Powertrain Sizing for Electric Vehicles <p>Rapid growth of electric vehicles technology and its efficiency management techniques has led to dramatic rise in the necessity for effective sizing of powertrain components. The recent market need for this technology is the optimized powertrain design to encourage further evolvement. In present study, thorough calculations involved in the powertrain sizing through various assessments are emphasized. Forces, Power, Energy, Motor and Battery Pack calculations are derived along with discharge rate and battery usage time. Effective powertrain components capacitive size is calculated for an estimated vehicle performance which can eventually assist in the optimal vehicle design which helped in range extension.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Electric vehicles, Powertrain design, Battery Pack calculations, vehicle design, hybridization, Hybrid vehicles, fuel powered vehicles, Electrical Drive system, PHEVs, FEVs, fuel cells</p> Siddharth R Gandhi Abhijeet Chavan Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 695 707 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.6 Failure Analysis and Product Improvement for Hypoid Gearset of Rear Axle <p>The current market trend shows that LCV vehicle sales are in increasing phase and more demands are expected by customers in which the Vehicle manufacturers should meet their requirements and applicate the right product accordingly. This paper will briefly explain about the investigation results of Ring gear premature failure in LCV Rear axles. The rear axle is a Structural member which should meet both Fatigue and impact strength requirements; thereby axle can meet Customer requirements which are used to experiencing different duty cycles and load patterns. The scope of this paper explains about detailed Investigation which has been taken like Field Study, Failure Part’s Strip down analysis and Fracture analysis. In addition to that Failure simulation analysis was also performed through CAE verification and Vehicle level Validation for correlation study. Based on the Investigation results, Gear design modification proposals have been taken and underwent the CAE analysis to finalize opt design for development. Post development of new gear set, Vehicle level validation has been carried out and found no issues in Field operating condition.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: LCV vehicles, CAE Analysis, Hypoid Gearset, Ring Gear, Failure analysis, Fracture Analysis, Strip down analysis, Failure, simulation analysis</p> Prasanna Venkatesan R. Sundarayya V. Yoganand R. D. Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 708 713 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.7 Micromobility Vehicles in India: Urban Commute Analysis with users’ Perspective <p>Since 1817 there has been using of the term micro-mobility from bicycles to modern-day electric-powered micro-mobility vehicles. The paper presents the current Indian urban commute, user behaviour, Indian urban scenario of last and first-mile transportation and scope of micro-mobility vehicles in Indian urban markets for small distance commutes. This also discusses the potential challenges in the growth of the micro-mobility ecosystem. A survey is conducted locally for urban cases and presented to take users' perspectives and preferences regarding daily commute and last-mile travel options.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Charging facilities, Electric Vehicles, e-PMV, Last Mile Transport, Micro mobility, Network, Sustainable transport, Startups, Traffic Congestion, Urban Areas</p> Madhuvanti Paradkar Upendra Dani Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 714 720 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.8 Studying Modern Formula 1 Front Wing at High Cornering Speeds <p>A simulation-based study of three different types of front wing designs used in modern Formula 1 cars was done. The study mainly focuses on the aerodynamic forces that a Formula One car generates mainly the Downforce, the Drag force, &amp; the Lateral force at high cornering speeds. These forces were studied in detail &amp; taking a closer look at how they migrate during the dynamic conditions the car is thrown at various Side Slip (Yaw) Angles, these results were compared with the wing Scuderia Ferrari used in the 1998 Formula 1 championship to better understand the inherent problems faced in those previous designs. A brief study of the flow field &amp; flow lines was conducted along with the vortex generation for all three wings. Vortex formation and management is a prominent part of research being carried out for a Formula 1 car, so a brief study on the phenomenon of vortex generation &amp; Y250 vortex formation was also carried out. The studies were carried out over typical high-speed corners where the speed ranges between 220-300 KM/Hr. A study on the effect of the flow field of the top element on the lower element was carried out where the 5th element was removed from each of the three wings &amp; the effect on the downforce &amp; drag value was analysed along with the pressure field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Modern formula 1, Front wing designs, Cornering speeds, aerodynamic forces, Side Slip (Yaw) Angles, Centre of pressure (CoP), Lateral force, CFD, Downforce</p> Nimje P. Kakde R. Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 721 754 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.9 Design and Development of Indigenous EV Motor Test Rig for Small Capacity Motor Testing <p>Electric Vehicle is increasing at a faster pace. There is a need for them to meet a variety of reliability requirements. The reliability of the product in the automotive domain is very important as if the product fails it can cause catastrophe. The paper describes the design and development of the Motor Test Rig. The main application of the Electric motor test bench is certification and evaluation testing of motors used in Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles We have designed and developed an indigenous Motor Test Rig for OEM based on the experience we gained in EV motor testing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Failure Rate, MTBF, Automotive, Simulation, Reliability, Indigenous, EV Motor Test Rig, Motor Testing&nbsp;</p> Sreekumar U. Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 755 758 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.10 Growing Automotive Intake Manifold Market Key Trends and Future Prospects <p>The automotive industry is witnessing significant advancements in various components and systems, and one such crucial component is the intake manifold. As a vital part of the engine, the intake manifold plays a crucial role in delivering air-fuel mixture to the combustion chamber. The automotive intake manifold market has been experiencing steady growth, driven by technological advancements, increasing vehicle production, and the growing demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. This guest post delves into the key trends and prospects of the automotive intake manifold market.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Automotive, key trends, intake manifold, lightweight, electric vehicles, aftermarket</p> Sarah Johnson Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 759 761 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.11 Editorial <p>ARAI is placed at the center of critical juncture where the entire automotive industry is evolving from conventional combustion engine centered to a software centered &nbsp;&nbsp;smart mobility Industry. ARAI journal of mobility technology captures this essence of transition very clearly. The readers will indeed get a glimpse of these technologies that are built in India and across global institutions and organizations.</p> <p>As I recollect my memories of walking through the mist-covered hilltop centre of ARAI back in the 1990s for calibration of the smoke meter which was the only measuring equipment used to check and control the visible pollutants from diesel engines. Today’s ARAI has morphed itself into an institution where every modern aspect of these software-driven automotive products are created, assessed and regulated to create a sustainable future.</p> <p>Any nation's progress purely relies on the utilization of its full potential. Our capability to create products and services that fulfil the aspiration and needs of our consumers. We are the home to the software industry that designs software module or software packages that runs in machines today be it consumer appliances, automobiles, aircraft, banks, security systems, defence equipment and many more where software is an integral part of a product.</p> <p>Crystallization of ideas and products which helps individuals to move or for the general public to move in large numbers within our growing cities and in between cities is very well encompassed in this technical journal which helps researchers and engineers to visualize different products for the mobility industry.</p> <p>As a nation having the largest pool of young, qualified and highly capable engineers, the education system that propels the youth into a capable engineer with skills across multiple engineering domains is the fuel for the growth of both the component and vehicle industries. This human capital combined with the core research into components like sensors, actuators, magnetics, multiple cell chemistries, fast acting low-loss switches getting enabled through the latest communication technologies is the strength of our ecosystem to create software-defined automobiles of the future. This Journal from ARAI places a critical role in all these areas.</p> <p>The partnership between components and product creators in the automotive industry is in a transition phase through which Industry is undergoing will definitely witness a sea change in its capabilities to support and create next-gen mobility products. To identify, inform and eliminate the risk of failure on the part, every mobility product of today and in future has a vast amount of electronics and software inbuilt to effectively use such products to its fullest potential.&nbsp; These components will configure and change over a period of time inside these intelligent products to optimize the product performance over its lifetime.</p> <p>This journal of mobility technology and the authors of various articles herein bring great insight into every technical aspect and align leaders in the mission of creating software-centred autonomous and semi-autonomous products.</p> <p>Wishing all success to the editorial team for bringing this together and happy reading to all the readers.</p> Dr. Samraj J Dhinagar Copyright (c) 2023 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 3 3 10.37285/ajmt.3.3.0