ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology <p><strong>ISSN: 2583-3707 (Online)</strong></p> <p><strong>About the Journal: </strong>The ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology is an online and print technical journal in automotive and its related fields. It is a publication from <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARAI</a> in collaboration with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BSP Books Pvt. Ltd.</a>, Hyderabad. Its aim is to explore the knowledge of automotive professionals and to meet the needs of both academia and industry in terms of research and development. This journal will endeavour to promote research, innovation, and new ideas in various fields of automotive technology. It is a peer-reviewed, quarterly publication. <a title="Read more &gt;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Read more &gt; </strong></a></p> Mr. Nitin B. Dhande en-US ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2583-3707 Editorial Arindam Lahiri Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 Automation of Engine ECU Calibration through CAN with Python Machine Learning Algorithms <p>Engine ECU subsume the numerous control functions of electrical systems in the vehicle based on various sensors inputs and the control parameters present inside ECU such as maps, multiplication factors, constants and so on. These control parameters need to be calibrated effectively for better performance as well as to meet stringent emission norms. Since, the most efficient way of calibration is through CAN by means of XCP/CCP protocol, this process involves logging and processing of the ECU data to estimate the appropriate values followed by downloading the modified values to the ECU manually. Even though from theoretical calculations it is possible to estimate the approximate parameter values, these values need to be validated in engine test beds or on road and are fine tuned to attain the optimum results by repeating the same trial under same test conditions numerous times. After each trial, the data is analyzed and new set of data is determined which is downloaded to ECU before the next trial. This process is carried out until optimum results are achieved which is time consuming. In this paper, a new approach has been explained which will eliminate the human interference during the trials and speeds up the process of establishing the master slave communication between PC and ECU through any CAN transceiver hardware with the help of python, and its machine learning algorithms to carry out the analysis tasks between successive trials which develops regression models for predicting the parameter values based on the previous trials with in a shorter period of time increasing the human potential of calibration.</p> H S Prasanna Gupta Thallam Senthil Kanagaraj S Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 327 331 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.1 Studying Forces on Three Different Designs of Formula 1 Front Wing <p>A simulation-based study of three different types of front wing designs used in the modern Formula 1 cars was done. The study mainly focuses on the aerodynamic forces that a Formula One car generates mainly the Downforce, the Drag force, &amp; the Lateral force. These forces were studied in detail &amp; taken a closer look at how do they migrate during the dynamic conditions the car is thrown into namely at various Ride Height changes, at various Side Slip (Yaw) Angles. A further elaborative study of the force builds up across the span of the wing was studied giving us a better picture of the concentration of the Downforce, drag force, &amp; Lateral force being generated which will help us to correlate the pressure distribution data across the wingspan to the actual downforce concentration figures. A brief study of the flow field &amp; flow lines was conducted along with the vortex generation for all three wings. A short comparison was made between the modern wing &amp; a wing Ferrari used in the 1998 season, which will help us to understand the inherent problems that those designs had &amp; how modern wings get around those.</p> P. Nimje R. Kakde Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 332 365 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.2 U Bolt Failure Analysis <p>U bolt failures occur commonly in commercial vehicles. U bolt failures occur at various stages. 17 U bolts failures were analyzed to have a detailed understanding of the issues. Failures commonly occur during assembly, ORT (On Road Trial) validations and in field. In general, the failures can be classified as assembly failures and during service. Analysis revealed that assembly failures are torsional and ductile failures &amp; field or ORT failures are fatigue failures.</p> Divya S Sivakumar GK Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 366 370 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.3 A Failure Analysis of Full Float Axle Shaft: Bending Fatigue - Case Study <p>Primary function of axle shaft is to transmit the power from differential to wheel ends. Historically believed that full float axle shaft will experience only a torsional load, not the bending load as bending moment is taken care by the housing banjo. At particular heavy truck product segment, observed many field return axle shaft failed at the flange outer fillet cavity region. Failure was at different mileage. In bench validation such failure phenomenon were not observed leads to suspect overload in the field. Upon fracture analysis no metallurgy deficiency observed. Upon the fractography crack initiated from the outer side at the flange fillet center cavity region. This fracture portion is quench &amp; tempered region. Residual stress analysis carried out to understand the cause of the failure due to improper tempering but stresses are compressive in nature. Ishikawa diagram is plotted to understand the root cause for the bending fatigue failure. Housing banjo which supposed to take bending load is analyzed &amp; found permanently bent to some extent. This is evident that the truck experienced the overload, causing the permanent deformation of housing banjo, there by inducing the bending load in the full float axle shaft, resulting to failure of the shaft. The evidence of shaft surface rubbing on banjo spindle surface &amp; oil baffle plate was observed. Flange geometry is constrained that case hardening is not possible. Already the superior grade material with quench &amp; temper is used for the shaft. Hence decision taken to add the material &amp; fill up the cavity portion at the outer portion of flange center. Design reviewed, FEA analysis shows lower stress due to increase in section modulus by even considering the overload. The failure arrested completely by filling up the cavity at the outer region of flange.</p> Yathish Rao Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 371 376 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.4 Selection of the Optimal Tire for an FSAE Vehicle based on Evaluation of Key Performance Parameters <p>Tires are the components which physically connect the vehicle body to the ground, thus choosing the correct set of tires is important, not only to achieve the most out of the car but also to provide the platform, based on which the suspension and steering geometry of the vehicle are designed. This selection has to be based on the comparison of various available sets of tires and evaluating them based on key performance parameters, such as peak lateral force (Fy), peak self-aligning torque (Mz), instantaneous cornering stiffness and instantaneous camber stiffness. The tire which gives the best possible combination of all these parameters would help achieve sufficiently good acceleration and speed, and also have a sufficiently large window of operation, where it is robust and less sensitive to changes. Thus, the tire, which achieves the best balance of properties between performance, driveability, cost and robustness would be the chosen tire for the car, which forms the basis of the next steps of the chassis design.</p> Achanta Simha Sreekar Kapilesh Kathiresh Prashanth Barathan Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 377 385 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.5 Design and Analysis of Suspension System for an ATV Using LOTUS Software <p>Suspension System is classified as the most important subsystem of a vehicle as its design is responsible for the dynamic performance, comfort and safety level of the vehicle. This paper focuses on designing the suspension system for an ATV and considers its impact on steering geometry. LOTUS Shark Suspension Analysis software has been used as the prime software tool for the designing and simulation process for the suspension and to study its corresponding effects on the steering geometry. The literature also includes the force calculations that are performed during suspension design. It also sheds light on calculations and design aspects of the steering subsystem as well.</p> Aditya Chavhan Animesh Hedaoo Rajat Gode Ritik Raj Singh Syed Hamza Ali Ganesh Shetiye Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 386 391 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.6 Thermo-Structural Analysis of a Roots Expander <p>Roots expander is a waste heat recovery device that utilizes the pressure energy from the engine exhaust to produce useful work. It is mounted downstream of the engine and consists of a housing with a pair of twisted rotors that are separated from each other by fine clearances. As the expander is exposed to high temperature exhaust gases from the engine, there will be deformations primarily caused by thermal expansion. There can be variable deformations of the parts (owing to different materials) resulting in change in clearances that can affect the performance of this device. Thus, it is important to understand the thermo-structural behavior of expander, which is the motivation behind the present work. This paper will detail the methodology that was used to model the thermo-structural behavior of expander using CFD &amp; FE analysis. A co-simulation method was adopted to couple transient CFD analysis with steady state FE thermal simulations to get the temperature distribution on the device. The obtained temperature results are then used in steady state FE structural analysis to determine the deformations. A macro &amp; Microsoft Excel based clearance calculator was developed to determine the clearance change based on the deformation results. Based on the change in clearances, necessary modifications can be made to the design of expander to achieve optimum efficiency.</p> Preethi R.S. Giridhar M Jambare Sonil Singh Swaminathan Subramanian Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 392 400 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.7 Optimized Wiper Design using Computational Fluid Dynamics <p>This paper presents the robust use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as complement to wind tunnel testing for the performance assessment of rain water and wiper wash behavior on windscreen surfaces. The objective of this paper is to predict windscreen wiper design performance and its effectiveness with the help of CFD. Clear visibility to the occupants is the key for stress free and safer driving experience, therefore it is important to study the windscreen wiper system performance under different work load conditions. A multi-phase CFD code is used to simulate rain drops and its impingent on the vehicle is modeled with the help of thin liquid film. The wiper blade motion is defined with inputs from multi body dynamics (MBD) considering the driver and passenger side wiper blade speed and extent. Time-dependent results for the wiper blade location, water fluid film spread, and its height on the windscreen, A-pillar, leaf-screen rain gutters were obtained. The CFD results then equated with the physical test data. The calculated water film pattern found to be associated with the observed patterns of the waterways on the test vehicle. Multiple design studies were performed on the CFD model which are also reliable with similar test configurations. From the results, it is concluded that numerical simulation of water behavior on vehicle surfaces is possible, and CFD method is effective tool to assist engineers in envisaging, analyzing, and designing water management systems. A Computational Fluid Dynamics code had been introduced in order to simulate the cleaning performance of the automobile wash. Multi-phase thin film with rigid body motion models were used for this purpose. The objectives of the project were to quantify the water flow, enhance visualization, and develop a CAE methodology which will assist in the product development process.</p> Akshay Shirsikar Punam Khatik Kuldeep Singh Lachhi Ram Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 401 410 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.8 Simulation of Graphene Battery and other Battery Technologies in an EV Powertrain <p>The motivation for this work is to find a better and efficient energy storage solution for electric vehicle. It is done by comparing the performance of three different batteries, which are: Lead Acid battery, Li-ion battery and Graphene battery. In this paper, an electric vehicle model is created in Simulink using MATLAB software. The constructed model is based on the existing electric car TATA Nexon EV. Also, unlike the real car the model presented has a different battery pack and the battery parameters such as SOC, current, voltage, distance, velocity, and weight are changed to carry out the comparison between different battery technologies. The model will be simulated to obtain data regarding vehicle performance, energy consumption and range on the new FTP75 test cycle. The obtained know-how will help on later improvements of the electric model regarding methods to improve the vehicle performance and the simulation helps to choose the right powertrain for the vehicle without carrying out any real-life experiments.</p> Anubhav S Tony Sabu Madhav Hari Joemon C.T. Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 411 417 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.9 A Study of Knocking Noise in Disc Brake System and Its Elimination <p>In the automotive industry, elimination of Brake Noise is a tough challenge. In Past, extensive research and investigation has been done to eliminate brake vibrations/noises and improve vehicle comfort. Disc Brake noises are broadly classified into Squeal noise, Groan/moan, Judder, Wire-brush/Chirp, Rattle etc. These are mainly friction induced vibrations. Lots of study has been done already in characterizing and eliminating these friction induced noises. Apart from these, instantaneous noises (knocking/hitting type) are also observed in Brake System. This paper deals with the study and elimination of such an instantaneous “Knocking Noise” observed in Front Disc Brake system of a Passenger SUV vehicle.</p> Jeevan Kizhakkekalayil Sagar Malape Anand Wadodkar Raajha M.P. Copyright (c) 2022 ARAI Journal of Mobility Technology 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 2 4 418 426 10.37285/ajmt.2.4.10